There is no “one size fits all” when it comes to supporting individual change in the sleep challenged community. While, having a core CBN sleep product is critical, there are many other physiological, behavioral and lifestyle aspects that can and must be addressed to be meet the needs of people attempting to overcome clinical sleep disorders and/or improve the ease and quality of their sleep.

Our intention is to provide you with evidence backed studies and research in several areas that have both direct and indirect associations to the quality and duration of an individual’s sleep.

Science backed research is the footprint of all our formulations. Product recommendations are noted within the highlighted educational pieces. Our recommended formulations target on three major areas that are connected to sleep disorders and disturbances: pain and inflammation, anxiety and stress and obesity.

The National Institute of Health (NIH) is the largest biomedical research agency in the world. In 2015 they developed three reporting categories to describe the research efforts underway to examine the chemical, physiological, and therapeutic properties of cannabinoids and the somatic systems they affect.

Cannabinoid Research

Oversees the total NIH investment in all ongoing cannabinoid research: basic research; animal and human preclinical studies; clinical research; Studies examining cannabis use disorders; societal and health impact due to changing cannabis laws and policies; Studies examining all classes of cannabinoids , molecules that modify their concentration or activity, as well as the physiological systems they target (e.g. endocannabinoid system).

Cannabidiol Research

Arm of the cannabinoid research category that reports all NIH projects examining basic, preclinical and therapeutic properties of CBD.

Therapeutic Cannabinoid Research

This cannabinoid research group reports all NIH projects examining the therapeutic properties of all classes of cannabinoids (purified, synthetic, endogenous and phytocannabinoids).

While American research had been slightly behind that of many other countries, in fiscal year 2017, the NIH supported 330 projects, spending almost $140 million on cannabinoid research. Seventy projects ($36 million) examined the therapeutic properties of cannabinoids and 26 projects ($15 million) focused on CBD alone. The number of worldwide cannabinoid related studies has grown and is expected to continue to grow exponentially as essential health benefits are uncovered and documented.

With thousands of scientific studies completed and published over the years, we already have reliable evidence proving beneficial effects of specific cannabinoids on various diseases and unwanted conditions.

THE ENEMY WITHIN

From cells to organ systems, the human body is intricate, complex and reactive. Because it is such an interconnected system, no single cell or body part functions independently. It's a system built on responses and inter-relationships designed to maintain balance within the systemic whole. The immune system is a key component and is essential to homeostasis and survival. When a body becomes inflamed, the immune system is called upon to repair and heal damaged tissue or to battle against unwanted invaders like viruses and bacteria. While it is true that inflammation can effectively trigger a critical immune response, it is also true that inflammation can wage a savage war within our bodies. By looking at the negative power of inflammation’s destructive force, we begin to uncover the roots of the most feared modern diseases.

PAIN AND INFLAMMATION

We begin your journey with a theory, one that has shifted our previous view that inflammation is an essential and supportive response to disease, illness and injury. While we search to solve the mysteries of disease, our observational studies and laboratory research exposed one unifier, one common factor, inflammation.

There are generally two types of inflammation

 

•Tissue damage due to trauma, microbial invasions and noxious

ACUTE

compounds.

INFLAMMATION

•Rapidly starts, may become severe in a short time.

 

•Symptoms typically last for a few days.

 

•Slow, long-term inflammation.

CHRONIC

•Can last for several months to years.

INFLAMMATION

•The extent of the negative effects of chronic inflammation vary based on

 

the injury and the ability of the body to repair.

Acute inflammation erupts quickly and subsides within a few days or in rare cases it can linger for weeks. Things like allergies, poor diet, colds, bacteria, injury, or cuts can trigger acute inflammation, and acute inflammation can spark diseases like bronchitis. It is logical that chronic inflammation traditionally lasts for a much longer time than its acute cousin, enabling chronic inflammation to foster long term, unwanted physical problems. It is usually the body's failure to subdue acute inflammation within a reasonable span of time that stimulates its morphing into chronic inflammation.

HUMAN HEALTH

Even though pro-inflammatory processes are stimulated naturally, inflammation is a redundant component of dire diseases. When the inflammatory response is prolonged or occurs in areas where it is not needed, inflammatory disease states will develop and may cause increasing pain. The World Health Organization (WHO) ranks diseases that form as a result of chronic inflammation as the most significant causes of death. It is important to emphasize the power of the threat to health that chronic inflammation poses. (1)

The WHO reported that nearly 125 million Americans are living with a chronic condition, 61 million of which have more than one. The occurrences of diseases associated with chronic inflammation is anticipated to increase at an alarming pace over the next 30 years in the United States. Estimates conducted by the Rand Corporation in 2014 showed that nearly 60% of Americans had at least one chronic condition, 42% had more than one and 12% of adults had 5 or more chronic conditions. (1)

Chronic inflammatory diseases like stroke, chronic respiratory diseases, heart disorders, cancer, obesity, and diabetes account for the death of 3 out of 5 people, worldwide.

Some quick statistics:

Diabetes: Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the US. In 2015, The American Diabetes Association reported that 30.3 million people or 9.4% of the population in the United States had diabetes. The diabetic occurrence rate has grown since then. (1)

Cardiovascular diseases: The American Heart Association, in an updated report from 2017, stated that cardiovascular diseases accounted for 1 out of every three deaths or approximately 800,000 deaths annually in the United States. (1) Coronary heart disease, stroke and heart failure account for 1 out of 20 deaths in the US. Globally, cardiovascular disease is responsible for 31% of all deaths. (1)

Arthritis and Joint Diseases: 350 million people worldwide and nearly 43 million people in the United States (20% of the population) suffer from arthritis and joint disease. This number is expected to exceed 60 million people by 2020. Rheumatoid arthritis adds an additional 2.1 million Americans. (1)

Allergies: The sixth largest incidence of chronic disease in the United States is associated with allergies. Fifty (50) million Americans are diagnosed each year. Not surprisingly, asthma affects more than 24 million people in the United States and that includes 6 million children. (1)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): COPD is the third most common cause of death in the United States. Nearly 15.7 million Americans (6.4%) were reported to have been diagnosed with COPD in 2017. (1)

The technical complexities of the human body and all its systems is stunning. One could spend a lifetime reviewing observational studies and laboratory research without making a dent. With well-regarded scientific studies confirming the effectiveness of cannabinoids against inflammation and disease, there is a solid basis to promote the supplementation and use of cannabinoids to fight against disease and ameliorate compromised health issues. This lesson will discuss key research on inflammation and will describe the value of the supplemental use of full spectrum hemp oil as a positive alternative to conventional medications.

A simple overview of a typical immunological response:

BACTERIA

VIRUSUS

PATHOGENS

INJURY

Sentinel cells alert presence of invaders. Chemicals then signal capillaries to leak blood plasma, slowing down trespassers.

Another group of sentinels, macrophages, release specialized germ fighters called cytokines.

Immunizing B and T-cells join in destroying both the pathogens and tissues they have damaged.

Finally, a last wave of cytokines are released to alert the immune system that its work has been completed.

Chemicals empower the body to fight by surrounding the damaged tissue with blood, fluid and proteins.

This process creates swelling and heat to protect and repair damaged tissue and promote the onset of healing.

.

CB1 & CB2 Receptors

Both CB1 and CB2 receptors have been found on immune cells. This suggests that cannabinoids play an important role in regulating the immune system. In some models, cannabinoids downregulate proteins that are important in “signaling cells” to initiate the inflammatory process (Cytokine and Chemokine). In other models, cannabinoids upregulate cells as a mechanism to suppress inflammatory responses (T-regulatory or Tregs). (2)

Immunosuppression

CBD has been shown to be a potent antidote to inflammatory disorders, especially when the disorder is triggered by activated T-cells or other cellular immuno components. The use of cannabinoids such as CBD has led to immunosuppression and recovery from immune-mediated injury to organs, like the liver (3)

Neuropathic Pain

The number one reason people turn to full spectrum hemp and CBD oil is to relieve pain and inflammation. (4) CBD and other non-intoxicating cannabinoids found in full spectrum hemp oil have proven, in a variety of clinical settings, to be effective therapeutic agents. (9

Analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs traditionally used to treat chronic pain, including neuropathic pain, deliver questionable relief, may invite addiction and can deliver highly

adverse side effects such as acute bleeding or even cardiac arrest. (5) There is strong evidence supporting the use of CBD and other non-intoxicating cannabinoids found in hemp to alleviate chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain without negative side effects. (6)

While studies tend to focus on CB1 & CB2 receptors throughout the brain and body, recent research is demonstrating that cannabinoids, including CBD, do in fact bind to the less studied receptors in the endocannabinoid system.

TRPV1 receptors, such as the vanilloid receptor,

contribute to non-addictive forms of pain relief. Glycine receptors (GlyRs), specifically the α3 GlyRs, directly suppress pain not only within the central nervous system but also in the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain, the amygdala, the hippocampus and the spinal cord without creating analgesic tolerance. (7) It is the broad somatic reach without the need for increased doses that is believed to be the main reason why researchers found CBD and related cannabinoids as potential treatments for managing pain associated with spastic episodes in multiple sclerosis and the side effects of chemotherapy. (8)

Muscular Pain

Specialized nerve endings called nociceptors evoke muscle pain. Hyperexcitability of the nociceptors result in higher levels of pain. (10)

CBD and other cannabinoids that are naturally present in full spectrum hemp oil have been shown to significantly reduce these excitatory impulses to the nociceptors, thereby reducing and/or eliminating pain within these tissues. (11)

Full spectrum hemp oil is an effective antidote to inflammation. Its power to combat pain and inflammation comes from the vibrant combination of both cannabinoids like CBD and the less discussed terpenes that also reside within the hemp plant. Terpenes: a-pinene, beta caryophyllene, bisabolol, boswellic acid, d-limonene, guaiol, humulene, myrcene, limonene, ocimene, pseudopterosin, and tenuifolins contribute to calming inflammation and mediating pain within the muscles and the entire body. As is now well known, it is the dynamic combination of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids that produces the “entourage effect”, a powerhouse of healing compounds, all working together to dramatically reduce inflammation and eradicate pain in the muscles and restore balance to the body.(12)

Full Spectrum hemp oil is adaptive and can also work in synergy with terpenes that are not derived from hemp. Menthol is derived from various mints, but it’s a powerful terpene with proven synergetic properties. When menthol is added to topical pain formulations that include full spectrum cannabinoids, as well as hemp derived terpenes and flavonoids, the result is a more potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatment. Because menthol boosts absorption, it invites efficient penetration through the skin for faster delivery to the pain site for relief with expanded potency to the muscles or throughout the body. (13)

Innovative delivery systems of cannabinoids can activate rapid pain relief at its origins in the brain. If certain terpenes are inhaled, they can instantaneously stimulate nucleus accumbens, essentially “taking the edge off “of pain where it starts, in the brain. (8)

Cannflavins are phyto-nutrient flavonoids exclusive to hemp. Full spectrum hemp retains its natural cannflavins during processing. Cannflavin A has been found to reduce inflammation by inhibiting the inflammatory molecule PGE-2, just the way aspirin does, but cannflavin A does it more than 30 times more effectively, without any negative side effects. (14)

Whether calming the nociceptors, stimulating accumbent, or adding menthol to the equation, full spectrum hemp oil is a powerful antidote to muscle pain and the inflammation that accompanies it.

Gastric Health

Significant gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort or disease afflicts 74% of Americans. These GI problems trigger over 51 million annual visits to primary care physicians or GI specialists nationwide and account for nearly half a trillion dollars in health care costs each year. (15)

Recent findings suggest that prescription medications and over-the-counter drugs designed to alleviate acute GI distress have caused more serious symptoms, incubated disease and created addiction problems. The risks may outweigh the benefits.

The FDA approved Nexium in 2001 for the relief of heartburn and other symptoms associated with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and for healing erosive esophagitis, a potentially serious condition associated with GERD even though potential side effects from Nexium included headache, diarrhea and abdominal pain. In 2008, U.S. consumers and their insurance companies spent $4.8 billion dollars on Nexium, one of several prescription proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) to treat heartburn and acid reflux. Nexium was the second highest-selling branded drug in 2008, behind Lipitor. The number of users has climbed since then and currently, there are over 15 million prescriptions filled monthly. (23)

Nexium was nicknamed “Purple Crack” after a study conducted at Copenhagen University to understand the widespread difficulty of weaning off PPI’s (Proton Pump Inhibiters). They studied the effects of PPI’s on 120 healthy volunteers with no history of acid reflux or any gastrointestinal disorders or use of a PPI. As the study concluded, 44 % of the participants who had taken the PPI experienced a "clinically relevant acid-related" symptom compared to only 15% of the placebo group.

After PPI use was discontinued, nearly 50% of the healthy volunteers experienced acid reflux, heartburn or dyspepsia for the first time. The researchers found that when the study group stopped taking the acid-suppressant, their bodies over-produced hormones that stimulated stomach acids. The study’s authors called it a “rebound acid hyper-secretion” and speculated that PPI dependency could be the reason behind increasing usage of PPI’s. (16)

Aside from the probability of promoting dependency by impacting hormonal balance, this once seemingly harmless “purple pill” along with other PPI’s in the marketplace have been implicated in causing cancer, intestinal infections, bone wasting and fractures, kidney disease, heart attacks and even dementia. (17)(18)

Research in the treatment of GI disorders suggest that CBD is a safe treatment option. CBD targets CB1 receptors in the endocannabinoid system. (19)

These receptors:

Regulate food intake

Eliminate nausea and vomiting

Balance stomach secretions

Offer stomach protection

Regulate GI motility/movement

Reduce stomach and intestinal sensation and pain

Facilitate ion transport and maintaining proper fluid and electrolyte balance

Control the inflammation process that results from certain GI illnesses,

Ensure the proper number of cells of the GI tract

CBD also targets CB2 receptors which are most commonly found in immune system cells. Their primary function is to help the body prevent and/or recover from injury and illness. CB2 receptors regulate motility/movement, control inflammation caused by certain GI illnesses and they aid in reducing internal pain. (19)

Studies have concluded that CBD, and a full spectrum of cannabinoids and terpenes, can diminish gastrointestinal distress and aid in the treatment of a wide array of GI related diseases and disorders including but not limited to: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Crohn’s Disease, Gas, Diarrhea, Diverticulosis, Diverticulitis, Acid Reflux including GERD and GER, Ulcers and Celiac Disease. (21)

It has also been shown that CBD can positively impact receptors outside the ECS that affect many diseases such as Crohn’s Disease and that select terpenes can stimulate the vagus nerve which boosts the body’s general immune response. (20)

CONCLUSION

While powerful pharmaceuticals and over-the-counter products exist to decrease inflammation and reduce pain, or GI distress, they carry potentially devastating side effects and can contribute to the onset of chronic disease.(22) Pharmaceutical drugs are designed to produce a specific reaction and its “side or adverse effects” are traded as a “risk” against the “benefit” of the primary effect.

Symptom relief is only one piece of the therapeutic value of medicinal plants. Contrary to pharma medications, alternative plant therapies are directed towards aiding the body’s own healing process, acting gently to bring the systems and processes that have become deficient back into balance and helping to remove problematic excesses.

Interestingly, although not patentable by Big Pharma, raw extracts or in-tact plant materials are often more effective than their synthetic derivatives, as prescription drugs isolate and extract individual molecules from the benefits of the whole.

The anti-inflammatory properties of hemp and cannabis have been highly researched and their benefits have become well known. The importance of reducing inflammatory responses becomes clear as we understand more about inflammation’s negative role. Initially, inflammation invites a needed healing response from the immune system, but it can also progress to chronic inflammation and instigate the onset of killer diseases and activate unrelenting pain.

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2.Eisenstein TK, Meissler JJ. Effects of Cannabinoids on T-cell Function and Resistance to Infection. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2015;10(2):204–216. doi:10.1007/s11481-015-9603-3

3.Nagarkatti P, Pandey R, Rieder SA, Hegde VL, Nagarkatti M. Cannabinoids as novel anti- inflammatory drugs. Future Med Chem. 2009;1(7):1333–1349. doi:10.4155/fmc.09.93

4.Wilson,D, C. (2018). CBD oil for pain management: Effects, benefits, and uses. Medical News Today. Retrieved 16 May 2019, from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/3 19475.php

5.Lynch ME, Watson CP. The pharmacotherapy of chronic pain: a review. Pain Res Manag.2006;11(1):11–38.

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Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2015;12(4):699–730. doi:10.1007/s13311- 015-0377-3

8.Kogan NM, Mechoulam R. Cannabinoids in health and disease.Dialogues Clin Neurosci.2007;9(4):413–430.

9.Elikkottil J, Gupta P, Gupta K. The analgesic potential of cannabinoids [published correction appears in J Opioid Manag. 2010 Jan-Feb;6(1):14. Elikottil, Jaseena [corrected to Elikkottil, Jaseena]. J Opioid Manag. 2009;5(6):341–357.

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