Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About CBD Health and Beauty But Was Afraid to Ask
CBD is the Most Popular Ingredient in Beauty Products Today.
CBD and related plant compounds hold great promise for unlocking the body’s secrets to naturally maintaining physiological and mental balance, restoring optimal health and slowing the negative effects of aging.
How Hemp Helps Health?
Three Letters: E ndo
Introducing Nature’s Masterpiece - The Endocannabinoid System or the ECS for short.
The ECS is the the most important regulatory system in living creatures.
The ECS enables homeostasis (balance) at every level of biological life, from sub-cellular to internal organ functioning to entire body health.
The endocannabinoid system is involved in virtually every brain and body function, whether common place or exotic, including but not limited to fertility and pregnancy, pre- and post- natal development, appetite, mood, cognitions and memory, movement and physical exercise, reward motivated behaviors, pain, …yes, virtually everything.
The Endocannabinoid System has been a highly functional part of life from the beginning of time.
The endocannabinoid system is not a new biological phenomenon. In fact, it is one of the oldest systems in nature. In 2005, neurobiologists found evidence of fully developed endocannabinoid systems in sea squirts which are very tiny, ancient, marine organisms that date back over 600 million years - towards the very origins of life.
And the ECS has been well studied. There have been over30,000 published scientific studies aimed at increasing our understanding of the ECS and the number of studies being carried out is accelerating wildly.
While there is still a lot to learn, science has provided front line health and beauty professionals like ourselves with quite impactful information to support improvements in the health and lifestyle of our clients.
The ECS is a complicated network.
Inside the body, there are countless billions and billions of very specialized, important receptors called endocannabinoid receptors. Endocannabinoid receptors have a singular purpose - to process special types of neurotransmitters that:
- a) are produced naturally within the body called endocannabinoids. Examples of endocannabinoids would be anandamide and 2-AG, or
- b) are provided by cannabis plants called phytocannabinoids or, more simply, cannabinoids. Examples of cannabinoids are THC, CBD, CBN, CBG and CBC.
- c) are provided by synthetic cannabinoids made in a laboratory.
Why Health Fails!
When there is insufficient activity on the endocannabinoid receptors, bodies begin to deregulate themselves and fall further and further out of homeostasis or balance. The less receptor site activity over longer time periods, the more the delicate internal balance can fail. The result can be both mental or physical challenges and illnesses.
Medical science has proven that when the endocannabinoid system slows due to receptor inactivity, a variety of problems can occur including things as mild as anxiety, sadness, stomach and intestinal disorders and insomnia or as serious as autism, cancer, depression, psychosis, Crohn’s Disease, epilepsy, Alzheimer’s Disease, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.
What do we know about endocannabinoid receptors?
Endocannabinoid receptors, also called cannabinoid receptors, are located all throughout the brain and body, embedded in the cell membranes of individual cells.
We now know that there are more endocannabinoid receptors in the body than any other type of receptor cell. That by itself should cue us into the importance of these receptors.
A very simple view of the endocannabinoid system is that there are two basic types of receptors:
cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1)
cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2)
CB1 receptors exist throughout the entire brain and body, however, they appear to be far more predominant in the nervous system including the brain, glands, gonads, connective tissues, and organs. Given the wide distribution of CB1 receptors, it should not be a surprise that they are involved in just about everything that happens in the body.
CB2 receptors exist throughout the entire brain and body, however, they are found mostly outside the central nervous system, in the immune system and its associated structures. The location of CB2 receptors highlight the critical role they have in regulating inflammation and many disease states including allergic and autoimmune inflammatory diseases and osteoporosis.
But Wait! There is more!
While CB1 and CB2 receptors are the two main receptors in the ECS, there are many other lesser known receptor types that help to regulate our health. Some examples are
GPR18: They exert an important influence on lowering blood pressure; however, it has highly important functions in immune cells as well as many other systems of the body.
GPR55: They lower blood pressure, are anti-inflammatory, and can be pain blocking. They also regulate energy intake and expenditure, which could impact diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Finally, they are neuroprotective and decreased neurodegeneration in models of multiple sclerosis.
GPR119: They regulate hormones such as insulin and GLP-1 which serve to decrease hunger and food intake, improve blood sugar response and decrease body weight.
TRPV1: They have been shown to reduce pain.
5-HT3: They control nausea and vomiting, particularly after chemotherapy. They also regulate many aspects of pain.
GlyRs: They reduce pain by acting at the spinal level.
PPARs: Their effects include neuroprotection against a lack of circulation and neurodegeneration, lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels, reducing nicotine addiction, analgesia, anti-tumor effects, vasorelaxation and lowering blood pressure, decreasing blood glucose levels, weight reduction and reduced inflammation.
Others: There are many other ECS receptor types under study including NMDA receptors, acetylcholine receptors and glycine transporters.
Plants provide us with an added edge that our bodies do not even provide for us.
Endocannabinoids are made inside our bodies by each of us. Phytocannabinoids come from hemp plants and attach to the same receptors as endocannabinoids. Both compounds can enable better homeostasis and health.
In the case of CBD that means that CBD from the hemp plant roughly equals the 2-AG made internally by our bodies.
EXCEPT: The plant cannabinoids like CBD stay around longer on the receptors and add more lasting effects than the endocannabinoids like 2-AG.
The Hemp Plant
Hemp is a very tall, stalk like plant, sometimes 20 feet in height.
Hemp is a very hardy plant and can also grow in variety of climates with a growth cycle that typically falls between 108-120 days.
Hemp is considered the most versatile plant on earth with over 25,000 listed uses for it. Most commonly, it is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products including rope, clothes, food, paper, textiles, plastics, batteries, insulation, animal bedding and biofuel.
Hemp is one the oldest industries on the planet; more than 10,000 years old to be precise. The Columbia History of the World states that the oldest relic of human industry is a bit of hemp fabric dating back to approximately 8,000 BC.
The Hemp Plant and CBD
The hemp plant is rich in many different cannabinoids, the most popular today being CBD.
CBD is the short form of the term cannabidiol.
CBD is the main cannabinoid found in the hemp plant and is being studied in medical schools and Universities worldwide for an increasing number of healthful and beneficial effects on the body and mind.
CBD is both non-psychoactive and anti-psychoactive, as it negates the intoxicating “high” effects of THC. Based on the recent passage of the 2018 Farm Bill, CBD products are legal to be sold in all 50 States without a prescription, given the product meets certain manufacturing and marketing guidelines.
What is the Entourage Effect?
The phrase “entourage effect” was introduced to refer to all the various compounds present in hemp working together to create the sum of all the parts that leads to the power of hemp. For example, the entourage accompanying CBD in broad spectrum hemp oil would be the hundreds of other cannabinoids, terpenoids, and flavonoids that are found in hemp.
Put differently, hemp contains hundreds of natural compounds each with diverse health benefits. As a remedy, natural cannabis compounds work best together– not extracted one by one. This principle is aptly called “the entourage effect” to suggest that these compounds support each other and combine forces to heal us, as nature intended.
For this reason, products referred to as broad-spectrum cannabis or hemp oils preserve the integrity of the plant and its medicinal potency and are far more effective than isolates or refined oils.
One Steak Dinner Coming Right Up
Picture in your mind a filet dinner and all the fixings on the plate next to a plate with just a filet).
Cannabis compounds interact dynamically when left intact in the broad-spectrum plant product.
Nothing works for everyone all the time. Different people and different conditions will not respond the same way to cannabis treatments every time, products like broad-spectrum oil allow the maximal scope of benefits for everyone.
Whole plant extracts bring the whole “entourage” of plant compounds together, and with it, the greatest chance for creating optimal health and beauty benefits.
Today cannabis researchers have identified at least 144 cannabinoid compounds that are commonly found in cannabis. However, the cannabis plant also includes a wealth of phenolic compounds far beyond cannabinoids. As many as 1,088 non-cannabinoid compounds, such as terpenes and flavonoids, interact in complex ways and contribute to the entourage effect.
Now imagine going to a nice steakhouse with a friend. You both order filet dinners. When your dinners arrive, you receive a beautiful filet cooked to your liking on a plate. Your friend receives the same filet only with her filet she receives crab Oscar on top, sizes of potato and asparagus, a gorgeous salad, and a glass of wine. You would feel cheated, right? After all you both ordered the filet dinner. That is the way it is with CBD and the entourage effect. CBD is the filet; the other cannabinoids, terpenes and cannaflavins, etc. make up the remainder of the most nutritious meal.
Beyond Cannabinoids – Terpenes and Flavonoids
Aside from cannabinoids, there are other important healthy compounds in hemp also, such as terpenes and flavonoids.
Terpenes are the first major non-cannabinoid group with aromatic, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties – among other beneficial effects.
Terpenes can influence behavior by directly binding to receptor sites (cannabinoid receptors as well as other receptor types) or by affecting intermediary chemical messengers such as neurotransmitters like GABA, dopamine or serotonin.
A second major non-cannabinoid beneficial group of plant compounds found in cannabis and hemp are flavonoids. They are also referred to as cannaflavins.
Flavonoids have specific effects on receptor sites as well. For example, some cannaflavins reduce inflammation, while others act as anti-oxidants.
The Interrelationships Between Cannabinoids
Sometimes it is easier to express things in pictures than it is in words.
Many cannabinoids exist in two different forms: acid and non-acid.
What differentiates a cannabinoid in its acid form versus its non-acid form? The answer is simple -heat.
Commonly, the acid and non-acid forms of a specific cannabinoid have different effects in the body. But science is just now embarking on studies involving the acid forms of cannabinoids no not much definitive is known today.
The likely resolution to this research is that they are both highly important for different reasons and perhaps the greatest effects overall will be seen in using both CBDA and CBD in conjunction with each other.
CBGA is short for the more formal scientific name, cannabigerolic acid.
CBGA has been referred to as a “master cannabinoid” or a “stem cell cannabinoid” in that a cannabis plant first synthesizes CBGA and then uses that compound to form THCA, CBDA, CBCA and CBG which in turn gives rise to the other cannabinoids.
Some preliminary research indicates that CBGA may have anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic attributes.
CBG is short for the more formal scientific name, cannabigerol.
CBG shows efficiency in treating pain, inflammation, brain cell stimulation, bone growth stimulation, depression, seizures, insomnia, bacterial infections and poor appetite. CBG is being looked at in its specific success in treating glaucoma, IBS, Huntington’s disease, MRSA and blocking cancer cell growth.
Today, most people use CBG for epilepsy, various brain disorders and neurogenerative diseases like Parkinson’s.
CBC is short for the more formal scientific name Cannabichromene.
While CBC has been found to have many highly important health benefits, including reducing pain and inflammation, especially in migraines.
CBC also is extremely anti-bacterial and anti-fungal.
It also can help the GI system and is very good at eliminating diarrhea without creating constipation.
CBC has been shown to inhibit cancer tumor growth especially in breast and colorectal cancers.
Researchers believe its biggest benefit might be in the ability it has to potentiate other cannabinoids, allowing them to stay in the blood stream for more time, the net effect of which is to improve the immune system.
CBN is short for the more formal scientific name, cannabinol.
CBN is highly regarded for its sedative properties and has a stronger sedative effect than other cannabinoids, without causing the user to feel “high.”
Aside from its sleep promoting properties, CBN reduces anxiety and the negative side effects of stress. It is proving especially useful in treating anxiety disorders like PTSD.
CBDA is short for the more formal scientific name, cannabidolic acid.
CBDA is the precursor to CBD and it does not appear to interact with the endocannabinoid system directly. Instead, research shows that affects non-endocannabinoid receptors and systems.
It has shown promise in reducing inflammation and the spread of breast cancer cells. CBDA activates serotonin receptors which can alleviate depression and anxiety. Serotonin also helps control nausea and vomiting, which can help increase appetite.
CBD is short for the more formal scientific name cannabidiol.
CBD is anti-psychoactive.
CBD binds to both CB1 and CB2 receptors in the ECS and is one of the more recognizable cannabinoids with its recent emergence in the medical and natural treatment areas.
CBD has been shown to have many important health benefits for the body. These include:
Let’s talk about the most relevant ones for us.
The Leading Cause of Accelerated Aging: Inflammation and Pain.
Survey after survey of both people over the age of 35 and of medical researchers indicate that the leading cause of looking and feeling older is chronic PAIN.
If you are in pain, you may very isolated and alone. But you are not! Twice as many adults suffer from chronic pain daily as are affected by heart disease, cancer and diabetes combined.
As people suffer more from pain over time, the incidence of abuse and addiction to opioids such as heroin, morphine, and prescription pain relievers becomes a serious problem that not only speeds aging but affects the health, social and economic welfare of society.
The consequences of pharmaceutical abuse have been devastating and are on the rise. For example, the number of unintentional overdose deaths from prescription pain relievers has soared in the United States, more than quadrupling in the last 15 years.
What is Inflammation, Really?
Inflammation is like a constant war being waged within the body. Inflammation not only can shorten life; it can also greatly diminish the quality of life. Eventually inflammation will win but to the extent that we can control it or even eliminate it, that governs how health we are and how young we look and feel. Inflammation is a problem because:
We eat highly inflammatory foods like sugars and meats.
We engage in inflammatory activities like exercising without stretching.
Inflammation comes from a variety of medical conditions and diseases.
In other words, when it comes inflammation, we are our own worst enemies and the result is pain and a parade of diseases including Cancer, Heart Disease, Pulmonary Disease, Diabetes, Arthritis, Autoimmune Diseases, Gastrointestinal Diseases, Neurological Diseases and Alzheimer's.
And its not just an increase in disease, most of the pain a person experiences, either short term or long term, comes as a direct result of inflammation.
Life Hacks for Inflammation
There are three important things that you can do naturally to defeat inflammation and to live a more healthy, youthful life:
First, try to limit your intake of sugar and high fructose corn syrup including certain fruits, vegetables and starches that contain high glycemic carbohydrates and substitute vegetable proteins, fish, chicken and turkey for red meat as much as possible.
Second, get a minimum of 20 minutes of activity per day.
Third, supplement your diet with broad spectrum hemp. The research behind broad spectrum hemp and CBD as an anti-inflammatory substance is overwhelming.
How Hemp Reduces Pain: Systemic
CBD and other non-psychoactive cannabinoids found in broad-spectrum hemp have been proven to be effective therapeutic agents for pain relief in a variety of clinical settings.
The anti-inflammatory effects of broad-spectrum hemp does not end with cannabinoids such as CBD. It also contains terpenes including Pinene, Beta Caryophyllene, Boswellic Acid, Humulene, Myrcene, Limonene, all which help limit inflammation and mediate pain.
Finally, broad-spectrum hemp retains its natural cannaflavins, such as cannaflavin A. Cannaflavin A has been found to reduce inflammation by inhibiting the inflammatory molecule PGE-2, something that aspirin does also, only cannaflavin A does it 30 times more effectively than aspirin.
How Hemp Reduces Pain: Topically
Working in the field of beauty, most people in this room are on their feet most of the day. As a result, most of you experience various degrees of leg and foot pain. Let’s call this muscle pain, for short.
Muscle pain occurs when specialized nerve endings called nociceptors receive excitatory impulses of varying frequencies.
The more the activity in the nociceptors, the more the pain.
CBD and other cannabinoids naturally occurring in broad-spectrum hemp oil have been shown to significantly reduce the excitatory impulses reaching the nociceptors, thereby eliminating pain in tissues including overused, strained and weakened muscles.
Additionally, broad-spectrum hemp oil has over 500 naturally occurring compounds including hundreds of cannabinoids, terpenes and flavonoids many of which have been shown to dramatically reduce inflammation.
And as tissue inflammation decreases, pain disappears.
The Second Leading Cause of Accelerated Aging: Stress and Anxiety
Serious clinical anxiety disorders such as General Anxiety Syndrome, PTSD and Panic Attacks affect over 40 million Americans; however, since only a portion of those affected seek treatment, estimates are that the true number of those seriously afflicted by anxiety might be twice as high.
When you add adults suffering from moderate or persistent stress to this group and other types of mental disorders such as depression, then the numbers of anxiety affected adults represent quite a large majority.
In order to alleviate persistent anxiety, there are millions of people taking drugs such as the Benzodiazepines. While these may be helpful in the very short term for managing seriously acute stress episodes, using them for extended periods to alleviate anxiety can become highly addictive and is a prescription for accelerated aging.
Life Hacks for Anxiety
There are three main undertakings that you can do to limit anxiety and to promote a happy, emotionally balanced more youthful life.
First, you can learn relaxation techniques. There are a variety of simple relaxation techniques available to you including progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, meditation, even prayer. When done in a consistent manner, relaxation techniques help create balance in the body.
Second, exercise. Exercise is a great way to lessen the likelihood of anxiety triggers occurring and to eliminate some of the destructive chemical components of stress.
Finally, you can use broad spectrum hemp oil to limit the negative effects of stress and anxiety.
How Hemp Helps Control Excess Anxiety
Research evidence from dozens of preclinical, human and animal experimental, clinical, and epidemiological studies have demonstrated CBD’s role as a treatment for anxiety-related disorders.
Additional studies support similarly positive results for other cannabinoids, such as CBC and CBN and a wide variety of terpenes including myrcene, pinene and limonene. These terpenes target the anterior ventral cingulate cortex and the prefrontal cortex to generate calming signals to the body.
The Third Leading Cause of Accelerated Aging: Sleep Disorders.
Statistics indicate that nearly 40% of the adult population suffers from some type of significant sleep disorder.
Additionally, it is estimated that nearly 50% of the adult population in the United States is sleep deprived and is suffering from negative health consequences due to sleep problems.
Cannabinoids, as well as terpenes and other synergistic natural products, not only positively impact sleep but they also mitigate virtually every problem associated with a lack of sleep, including:
The average sleep-deprived individual may experience impaired performance, mood swings and irritability, as well as a lack of focus. This can affect normal perceptual and motor tasks like driving an automobile. Sleep plays a role in over 100,000 automobile accidents, 70,000 injuries, and 1,500 fatalities every year.
A lack of sleep has been linked with increased blood pressure and high cholesterol, as well as worsening nearly every major risk factor in heart disease. A lack of sleep has also been correlated with increased incidences of cancer, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and a huge number of other disease states.
A simple lack of sleep for just ONE night can depress the immune system and cause increased insulin resistance. When your body lacks sleep it also triggers many stress-related chemicals that shock the system causing further health complications.
Life Hacks for Improving Sleep
There are three things that you can do to improve sleep.
First, limit stimulants that you take within 8 hours of retiring for the night. This includes any beverage containing caffeine including coffees and sodas.
Second, utilize You Tube to download a musical tone in the range of 432-528 hertz. Research has demonstrated that tones in this acoustic range can greatly aid sleep.
Third, take broad spectrum hemp rich in CBD, CBN and CBG.
The Fourth Leading Cause of Accelerated Aging: Cognitive Decline.
Equally important is hemps ability to protect Cognitive Function. Cognitive decline is quite normal in the aging process because the brain has such huge oxygen and energy needs, free radicals can build up in the brain tissues rapidly.
CBD has been shown to protect against cognitive decline in animal studies and has been proven to be highly beneficial to human patients suffering from a variety of neurogenerative diseases including Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease.
CBD is a powerful anti-oxidant.
CBD can also improve the efficiency of the mitochondria, the “energy engine” for cells.
With less free radicals and higher mitochondria efficiency, less cell damaging occurs in the brain and a deceleration of the aging process.
Another startling mechanism of action appears to be the ability of CBD to stimulate the brain to make higher amounts of a compound called BDNF, which stands for brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
The Bottom Line: Antioxidant/Anti-Aging/Skin Benefits
Research demonstrates that the single most important cue people use when deciding the over-all desirability of others is youthful, wrinkle free skin.
Consistent with this, one of the strongest drives in a human being is to remain alive longer, in better overall health and looking as young as possible.
To that end, Americans spend countless billions of dollars on procedures to appear younger and on a dizzying array of oral and skin care products promoting a vigorous, youthful appearance.
CBD represents a powerful and easy method to decrease the speed of aging while improving the quality of life.
Anti-Aging Life: Fighting Free Radicals through Anti-Oxidants
Free radicals are an inevitable by-product of our breathing oxygen rich air.
Free radicals are not complex or mysterious; they are simply unpaired negative electrons that roam throughout the body until they find positively charged particle to pair with.
When free radicals exist too long in the body or in too high amounts, our DNA automatically contributes positively charged particles to them, creating a massive net damage to our DNA.
Damaging the DNA causes cell death and rapidly accelerating aging. The more the quantity of free radicals in the body, the more the potential damage to cells exist and the more accelerated the aging process becomes.
While our bodies are constantly in the process of making free radicals, the problem becomes even worse when we are exposed to certain external stressors such as smog, environmental pollutants and even the sun.
Anti-oxidants are our first line of defense when fighting free radicals.
Anti-oxidants provide the positively charged particles that free radicals need to become stable and thereby spare the destruction of our DNA, promoting anti-aging.
Anti-oxidants like Blueberries, Cacao, Goji Berries, Grapeseed and Vitamins C and E get most of the attention, however, that can change quickly as the world learns about the incredibly powerful antioxidizing effects of broad-spectrum hemp.
Numerous clinical studies have proven the antioxidant power of various cannabinoids and terpenes. Head to head, the cannabinoids have been found to be up to 150% more effective than the most powerful antioxidant vitamins. The evidence behind CBD for protection against free radical damage is strong. In fact, it is so strong that the United States Government itself holds a patent for this effect (U.S. Government Patent 1999/008769).
CBD Topicals For Beauty
Aside from CBD rich broad spectrum oral (systemic) anti-aging products, skin care and beauty topicals are a second viable way in which CBD can assist in promoting anti-aging, as beauty topicals are the largest personal care product sector in the US.
CBD is the most popular beauty ingredient in products today. This is due to CBD being popular for treating skin disorders eczema, psoriasis and various skin rashes and disorders and due to the fact that it can decreasing skin aging.
The appearance of aging is a very simple biological phenomenon. First, after the age of 20, the skin produces 1% less collagen every year. Collagen is responsible for keeping the skin firm and strong and as collagen declines, the skin becomes thinner and more delicate.
Second, elastin levels also decrease which means that the skin isn’t as good at healing itself as it had been in the past.
And finally, third, our skin is covered in tiny oil glands which as we grow older work less effectively and lead to drier skin which shows wrinkles and imperfections more noticeably.
Cannabinoids like CBD can improve oil excretion in sebaceous glands in the skin, even as chronological aging occurs.
Hemp and its various cannabinoids will help all three of the aforementioned age related challenges.
Additionally, CBD has anti-inflammatory properties which helps to relax the skin so that all the fine lines and wrinkles don’t show as readily.
The Fifth Leading Cause of Accelerated Aging: Lifestyle Challenges.
Lifestyle behaviors affect a person’s rate of aging.
The two main lifestyle behaviors that contribute to accelerated aging are obesity and alcohol consumption.
More than two-third of adults in the United States are overweight or obese.
Forty-five percent of overweight Americans and 67% of those who are obese are trying to lose weight on any given day.
Each year Americans spend billions of dollars on diet products, yet they continue to gain weight rather than lose weight.
As you are probably aware, there are three main types of body fat:
- visceral fat which is the most health destructive fat
- subcutaneous fat which is often vexing for appearances, i.e. cellulite, etc.
- brown fat which only makes up about an ounce of fat per 10 pounds of other fat. This fat is quite healthy and, when activated, burns over 500 calories of other fat, on average per day, all by itself.
CBD has been shown to promote fat loss on multiple fronts.
First, CBD activates genes and proteins that stimulate the breakdown and oxidation of visceral fat.
Second, CBD increases the number and activity of mitochondria which increases the body’s ability to burn calories and reduce visceral and subcutaneous fat.
Third, CBD is thought to convert some white fat to brown fat, which improves glucose tolerance and fat burning.
Fourth, certain cannabinoid and terpenes can eliminate hunger and cravings and promote anxiety reduction and feelings of happiness which further help curb overeating.
As more research is being undertaken on CBD and other cannabinoids on their effects on hunger, fat burning, carbohydrate utilization, energy metabolism, etc. there is no question that hemp will emerge as one of the safest and most effective ways to battle the obesity epidemic that plagues the United State and the entire world.
The more alcohol is consumed the more aging is accelerated, most fundamentally, because of the negative effects of alcohol on the liver.
Hemp can help here:
First, cannabinoids can prevent the escalation of alcohol consumption where one drink leads to another.Second, CBD has been proven to stop the liver from producing a wide range of free radicals during challenges from alcohol while simultaneously replacing them with more positive compounds such as superoxide dismutase (SOD).